Friday, September 4, 2020

The Most Effective Treatment For Anxiety Disorders Essays

The Most Effective Treatment For Anxiety Disorders Nervousness issue are turning into a far reaching plague in America. Every year we spend more than $46 billion dollars, about 33% of our absolute emotional well-being bill, rewarding the right around 20 million Americans influenced by nervousness issue. With these amazing numbers, it is nothing unexpected that specialists and specialists are inspecting a wide range of types of treatment so as to discover more and better approaches to analyze and treat these crippling issue. The American Psychiatric Association expresses that no single circumstance or condition causes tension issue. Or maybe, physical and ecological triggers may join to make a specific nervousness ailment. Psychoanalytic hypothesis recommends that nervousness originates from oblivious clashes that emerged from uneasiness during earliest stages or adolescence. For instance, an individual may convey the oblivious clash of sexual sentiments toward the parent of the other gender. Or on the other hand the individual may have created issues from encountering a disease, trepidation or other genuinely loaded occasion as a youngster. By this hypothesis, uneasiness can be settled by recognizing and settling the oblivious clash. The side effects that represent the contention would then vanish. Learning hypothesis says that uneasiness is a scholarly conduct that can be unlearned. Individuals who feel awkward in a given circumstance or close to a specific item will start to maintain a strategic dista nce from it. In any case, such shirking can constrain a patient's capacity to carry on with an ordinary life. All the more as of late, research has demonstrated that biochemical lopsided characteristics can be factors. Numerous researchers state all contemplations and emotions result from complex electrochemical associations in the focal sensory system. Also, a few investigations demonstrate that implantations of certain biochemicals can cause a fit of anxiety in certain individuals. As indicated by this hypothesis, treatment of tension should address these biochemical irregular characteristics. In spite of the fact that meds previously ring a bell with this hypothesis, recollect that reviews have discovered biochemical changes can happen because of passionate, mental or social changes. Presumably every one of these hypotheses is consistent with some degree. An individual may create or acquire an organic powerlessness to tension issue. Occasions in adolescence may prompt certain feelings of dread that, after some time, form into an out and out nervousness issue. Dr. Rolland Bailey, D.O. states in an ongoing meeting, An assortment of variables have been distinguished as potential reasons for tenacious uneasiness. There is proof it might be because of a lopsidedness of a substance considered serotonin n the cerebrum. In individuals with uneasiness issue, it has been proposed that there is an overabundance of serotonin. Different synthetics may likewise be answerable for causing uneasiness. Tenacious uneasiness has additionally been appeared to run in families, demonstrating a potential innate impact. Unpleasant occasions may likewise be causes or triggers of nervousness. As indicated by the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill a few components appear to add to the advancement of a nervousness issue. Much new exploration proposes that these disarranges both disagreement families and are the consequence of one's mind science. Certain beneficial encounters and one's general character are additionally thought to impact the probability of having an uneasiness issue. As showed by James Herbert, Ph.D. Program Director and Associate Professor of Psychology at Hahnemann University that while nobody knows for certain what causes social fear, the logical examination proposes that both organic and ecological components are presumably included. Individuals with social fear have likewise been appeared to have certain predispositions in their reasoning. For instance, they frequently misrepresent the dangers and risks of certain social circumstances. The treatment alternatives are as differed as the quantity of experts rewarding these clutters. The issue with treatment choices for social nervousness issue is that, not normal for some other mental issues, social tension isn't surely known by the overall population or by clinical and psychological wellness care experts, for example, specialists, therapists, clinicians, advisors, social laborers, and instructors. Indeed, individuals with social tension are misdiagnosed practically 90% of the time. Individuals with social fear are frequently named as schizophrenic, hyper burdensome, clinically discouraged, alarm scattered, and character disarranged, among other harming misdiagnoses. Social tension issue, as other psychological instabilities, reflect brokenness inside the mind, as per Dr. Steven Hyman, we are starting to comprehend the particular circuits in the cerebrum that underlie the various ailments (1). A great many people experience sentiment of tension before a significant occasion, so what isolates these

Saturday, August 22, 2020

How To Use Indefinite Articles Un and Una in Spanish

The most effective method to Use Indefinite Articles Un and Una in Spanish In the event that you tune in to oldies music, you may review one of the sentences of a mainstream Spanish-language move tune: Yo no soy marinero, soy capitn, soy capitn. Deciphered, that would be, I am not a sailor, I am a chief, I am a commander. That sentence demonstrates one of the contrasts among Spanish and English. Albeit English requires the word a preceding sailor and chief, Spanish doesnt require an equal word, which for this situation would be un. Un and Una Classified as Indefinite Articles An and an are referred to grammarians as inconclusive articles, and the Spanish counterparts are un (utilized before manly things and thing phrases) and una (female). Utilizing the Spanish uncertain articles when they arent required is one of the entanglements for some starting Spanish understudies. State no soy un marinero, soy un capitn, and it would sound as cumbersome (and inappropriate) as one potential interpretation into English: I am not one sailor, I am one chief. As a rule, at whatever point you use un or una in Spanish, you have to utilize an or a to state the equal in English. However, the converse isnt valid. The appearance is that Spanish as often as possible excludes the inconclusive articles. Excluding Articles With Ser Dont utilize the inconclusive article before an unmodified thing after a type of ser (to be), particularly concerning occupation, religion, association, or societal position. Typically, if the thing is changed, the article ought to be utilized: Soy profesor. (I am a teacher.)ã‰l es un buen dentista. (He is a decent dental specialist. Here, dentista is changed by buen.) ¿Eres catã ³lica? - No, soy una metodista feliz. (Is it accurate to say that you are a Catholic? No, Im a glad Methodist. Metodista is altered by feliz, however the unmodified catã ³lica stands alone.)Es artista. (She is an artist.)Es una artista que muere de hambre. (She is a destitute craftsman.) Overlooking Articles With Otro A typical mix-up made by English speakers is to utilize un otro or una otra for another. Otro/otra remains without anyone else. Quisiera otra taza. (I might want another cup.)Comprà ³ otro coche. (She purchased another car.)Quiero viajar an otra ciudad chilena. (I need to visit another Chilean city.) Excluding Articles With Certain Large Numbers The numbers mil (1,000) and cien (100) needn't bother with the article. Mil and cien as of now allude to one thousand and one hundred, individually. Gana mil dã ³lares por mes. (He procures a thousand dollars for each month.)Tiene cien aã ±os. (She is a hundred years old.)Hay mil maneras de cambiar el mundo. (There are a thousand different ways to change the world.) Discarding Articles In Exclamations Using Que In outcries, for example,  ¡Quà © sorpresa! (What an astonishment!), theres no compelling reason to put anything between the que and the accompanying thing.  ¡Quà © lstima! (What a shame!) ¡Quà © casa! (What a house!) ¡Quà © diferencia hace un dã ­a! (What a distinction daily makes!) Excluding Articles With Some Prepositions After wrongdoing (without), the article is generally excluded except if the speaker is accentuating the articulate absence of something: Escribe sin ordenador. (He composes without a computer.)La ciudad tendr un mximo de 30 grados sin posibilidad de lluvia. (The city will have a high of 30 degrees without a chance of rain.)La cantante compartiã ³ fotos sin una gota de maquillaje. (The vocalist shared photographs of herself without a solitary bit of cosmetics. It would be syntactically right to forget about the una, yet its consideration puts accentuation on the articulate absence of cosmetics.) The article is normally precluded after con (with) when con has a significance like English words or expressions, for example, wearing or outfitted with. At the point when con can be interpreted as utilizing, the article is commonly overlooked if the item is being utilized in a conventional manner. El bebã © come con cuchara. (The infant eats with a spoon. This is the common use for a spoon, while the utilization in the following sentence isnt.)El preso se escapã ³ de la crcel con una cuchara. (The detainee got away from the prison with a spoon.)Vestir con zapato plano y obtener un resultado de 10 es posible. (Dressing with level shoes and getting a 10 is conceivable. Balance this sentence with the accompanying model, where the shoe isnt being worn.)Sà © como abrir una botella con una zapato. (I realize how to open a container with a shoe.) Overlooking Articles After Certain Verbs The article is much of the time precluded after types of tener (to have), comprar (to purchase), llevar (to wear), and some different action words when conventionally alluding to things that individuals would regularly have or utilize each in turn. No tengo coche. (I dont have a car.)Lleva camisa. (He is wearing a shirt.)Vamos a comprar casa. (Were going to purchase a house.) ¿Tiene madre? (Does he have a mother?) Counting the Indefinite Article When English Doesn’t At long last, there is one situation where we dont utilize the uncertain article in English where its required in Spanish. In a progression of at least two words joined by and, we regularly forget about the an or a, yet when utilizing y in Spanish the un or una is utilized to evade vagueness. In English we may state a feline and canine, for instance, however in Spanish it must be un gato y un perro. Without the subsequent un, the expression would be comprehended as alluding to one animal, a combination of a feline and canine. Note the qualification in these sentences: Conozco an un artista y un dentista. (I know a craftsman and I know a dentist.)Conozco an un artista y dentista. (I know a dental specialist who is additionally a craftsman.) Key Takeaways In spite of the fact that un and una are what could be compared to one, they are regularly better deciphered as an or an.Most of the time that Spanish uses un or una before a thing, the relating English sentence can be interpreted utilizing an or an.The inverse, notwithstanding, isn't in every case valid, as there are commonly that an or an is left untranslated in Spanish.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Social Issues in Sociology

Social Issues in SociologySocial issues in sociology is a term used to describe a group of groups or ideas that are linked by a shared idea or values that can cause problems with the lives of individuals and society. Sociologists commonly discuss the effects of social causes on societies. The sociology of ideas is often looked at in regards to how individuals deal with their environments, their group, and society.Many social issues in sociology are usually brought about through religion. In many cases, religion and some particular religious ideas may act as a kind of social cause. People can become anti-social due to their opposition to certain beliefs, religions, or other social groups.Ethnocentrism or racialism is a set of ideas that help to classify different people into different groups based on race, ethnicity, and origin, while not taking into account the individual's social status. Individuals can be seen as a part of a particular group or as an outsider to one. Being categori zed as a member of a group or as an outsider to one is often a fact that makes it difficult for individuals to lead successful lives.Another social issue in sociology is emotional. A person can find it difficult to handle emotions and feelings if they are classified as 'other.' Society can be viewed as one big place where different people mix to avoid this issue.Cultural nationalism is a form of nationalism that originates from a culture and national history. Individuals may decide to be part of a particular group or nation that is a part of a common history. It is important to note that people are not all equal and that culture is not the same as a nation.Economic nationalism is a type of nationalism that is used to support economic systems. The government can claim to have control over a certain industry, or economic system, in order to help produce goods and increase economic output. The government can use international trade to claim control over a certain industry or national m arket.Some social issues in sociology can be related to racialism, but there are instances when people from different races may share a culture or religion. This form of ethnicity is a common social issue in sociology. For example, there are different races and ethnicities that exist in the United States.These are some of the most common forms of social issues in sociology. Sociologists often describe different social causes in regards to race, religion, nationalism, and ethnicity. The best way to understand these social causes is to learn more about them by getting more information on the subject.

Tuesday, June 23, 2020

The Presence of Absence Understanding Sula - Literature Essay Samples

Absence is an exceedingly powerful thing. Absence is not a brief silence, or an easily forgotten moment, or a matter of little or no consequence. It is a feeling of perpetuity, a constant gnawing in the stomach and at the back of the mind. Absence is always present. In Toni Morrison’s Sula, absence runs rampant amongst the citizens of the Bottom; there is absence of love, of loyalty and understanding, of essentially everything that binds people together; there is blood, and a forsaking of everything else, of everything that matters so much more. Fathers abandon their children, husbands their wives. Mothers stay but leave their children wondering if they have ever been truly loved. Friends turn their backs on one another and choose anger, grief, and sorrow over catharsis. It is the lack of pure loyalty and understanding that leads, without exception, to the downfall of each and every character. There is no betrayal so great in its devastation as the betrayal of a parent against his or her child. The people of the Bottom consider themselves connoisseurs on the topic of evil; they stand resolute in their collective belief that â€Å"the presence of evil [is] something to be first recognized, then dealt with, survived, outwitted, triumphed over† (Morrison 118). However, what they fail to recognize, outwit, and triumph over is the evil that thrives in their narrow minded comfort zones. The presence of evil can be found through the deliberate forsaking of family, an act committed by almost every male character in Sula. BoyBoy abandons his wife and children and then comes back to visit Eva years later, as if that single act of abandonment has not made him entirely worthless. BoyBoy has no loyalty to his wife, and this is true of many of the men in the novel. He represents a larger pattern of behavior – the many husbands who cheat on and leave their wives. It is his narcissistic absconding that makes Eva who she is, and therefore it is BoyBoy who sets off much of the chain reactions in the novel. Had he stayed, Eva would not need to leave her family for 18 months just to provide for her children. Eva fulfills part of her role as a mother in that she provides for her children, gives them food, clothing, and shelter, but she also leaves her daughter with the question ‘â€Å"Mamma, did you ever love us?’† (67). The only time Adams 2Eva’s love is truly apparent is when she is when she kills one child, and when she fails to save another. It is love and it is loyalty Eva feels, but it is a stricter, harsher kind, and in the case of Plum, it is a perversion; she shows that she loves him by setting him alight in flames, so that he may die a death befitting a man. Eva passes on a perverted sense of loyalty to her granddaughter Sula. The only loyalty Sula feels is for herself and for her best friend Nel. Sula goes so far as to cut off part of her own finger to protect Nel from bullies. This is reminiscent of Evas willingness to lose her leg for her children, and it shows that Nel and Sula are more like family than friends. However, family does not mean a right of way to sleep with other people’s husbands. It is not entirely Sula’s fault, as she is taught from a young age â€Å"that sex [is] pleasant and frequent, but otherwise unremarkable† (44). Though Sula’s love for Nel never wavers, her understanding of loyalty does. Whatever her intentions, whatever their precedent of sharing, Sula wounds Nel, resulting in Nel’s husband Jude leaving her. Jude has no loyalty, no understanding of the unequivocal value of family, and though he buys postcards for his children, he never sends them. Nel, rejected and abandoned by Jude, in turn rejects and abandons Sula. There is a refusal on both ends of the friendship to recognize and understand where the other is coming from, and this lasts until after Sula’s death, when Nel is left with â€Å"just circles and circles of sorrow† (174). There is no pure loyalty in Sula. It exists only in perverted forms that invariably l ead to devastation in both large and small ways. BoyBoy, like most men in the Bottom, abandons his family without a hint of remorse, as does Jude, and there is abundant cheating and misappropriation of values. Eva, who raises her kids as best she can, gives no affection, and leaves them wondering if she has ever truly loved them. Sula, with all her love and devotion to Nel, cannot help but hurt her, and Nel cannot forgive her. Loyalty is muddled and misunderstood, and the rampant lack of it in its pure form wreaks agony and disaster upon the people of the Bottom.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Perfect Competition and Monopoly - 1734 Words

Question 3 Perfect Competition and Monopoly (a) I. Explain perfect competition and monopoly market structures, and identify the key factors that distinguish them. Perfect Competition Market In economic theory, the perfect competition is a market form in which no producer or consumer has the power to influence prices in the market. According to the website, in order to classify the market is a perfect competition market, the market must match below criteria: 1. There are a large number of small producers and consumers on a given market 2. None of the producers or consumers can influence the price on their own (ie. Price takers) 3. Goods and services are perfect substitute (ie. The goods or services is†¦show more content†¦Many monopoly market is monitored by the government or other government agencies, and this can ensure the services or goods are of reasonable level of quality. Also, there would be a way for the customers to make complaint against the company. Argument against monopoly One of the argument against monopoly is the market is lack of competition, and the monopoly business does not have motivation to make any innovation to improve its product or service. Also, in the monopoly market, business has power to influence the supply level and have great influence to affect the price level. In this structure of market, consumers cannot choose their preferred suppliers and have no power to influence the price level. (b) I. Choose a case study from your home country where an externality exists in a current market. Illustrate the situation and the resulting deadweight loss in a diagram and discuss ways that your government has addressed the presence of negative externalities in the market. Petroleum industry is an example of industry with externality in the market. There are many petrol stations in Hong Kong, with different brand names, and we assume that this is a perfect competition market. If there is no externality in this market, we would conclude that the private cost that customers pay is same as social cost, and the private benefit is same asShow MoreRelatedMonopoly and Perfect Competition1045 Words   |  5 Pagesdifference between monopoly and perfect competition? Firm under perfect competition and the firm under monopoly are similar as the aim of both the seller is to maximize profit and to minimize loss. The equilibrium position followed by both the monopoly and perfect competition is MR = MC. Despite their similarities, these two forms of market organization differ from each other in respect of price-cost-output. There are many points of difference which are noted below. (1)Perfect competition is the marketRead MorePerfect Competition and Monopoly1722 Words   |  7 PagesQuestion 3 Perfect Competition and Monopoly (a) I. Explain perfect competition and monopoly market structures, and identify the key factors that distinguish them. 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Perfect competition e.g. Marks Spencer, they have many competitors such as, Asda, NextRead MoreMonopoly, Perfect Competition, Imperfect Competition5614 Words   |  23 Pagestheory of perfect competition 3 Section 2: The theory of monopoly 9 Section 3: The theory of monopolistic competition and oligopoly 13 Section 4: Resource allocation/externalities 19 Section 5: Suggested solutions 23 INTRODUCTION There are basically two types of market situation: (a) Perfect competition – in this market, firms have no influence; they are price takers. (b) Imperfect competition – this market includes monopoly, oligopoly and monopolistic competition; firms areRead MorePerfect Competition, Oligopoly, And Monopoly Essay1988 Words   |  8 PagesThe marketplace consists of four main structures: perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly. 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Understanding these different type of market structures helps to better understand what type of marketRead MoreThe Various Shades Of Monopolies And Perfect Competition1003 Words   |  5 PagesThe Various Shades of Monopolies and Perfect Competition Robert Sturdevant Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University â€Æ' Abstract Monopolies are always known to hold a limited amount of control over its particular market and that gives them the dominant ability to control the prices for its goods or services, or in other words, they represent the market. They indeed have detrimental effects on consumer and social welfare, which is why most do not agree with them. This paper is an attempt to addressRead MoreMarket Structures : Perfect Competition, Monopoly, Monopolistic Competition And Oligopoly2078 Words   |  9 Pagesmarket structures – perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition and oligopoly, and their determinations of price and output. It also discussed the possibility for firms to generate profits in the short-run and/or in the long-run within these four market structures. It will be shown in the discussion that both monopolistic and oligopolistic firms are able to generate profits in both short-run and long-run, while firms in perfect competition and monopolistic competition could on ly make profitsRead MoreAn explanation of monopoly, oligopoly, perfect competition, and monopolistic competition - a detailed overview946 Words   |  4 Pages(public companies). One of the key determinates to a successful national economy is the structure of its markets. The main market structures are: 1. Monopoly 2. Oligopoly 3. Perfect Competition 4. Monopolistic Competition Each of these market structures have unique characteristics, and can be classified according to three factors. The degree of competition, the first factor, is important as it classifies markets into different market structures. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis Of Kurtz s The Russian Harlequin - 1349 Words

Very briefly summarize (7-10) the plot of the chapter Marlow learns the the Russian â€Å"harlequin† is devoted to Kurtz, although Kurtz does not reciprocate these same feeling, and he also learns that Kurtz spends the majority of his time with native Africans, raiding various villages for ivory. The man himself shows up, but is a contrast to the previous description of him; he is ghostly, bony and dying; his voice however, is penetrating and booming, and commands the actions of the natives around him. Moments later, a group of natives gather outside the cabin in which Kurtz has been place into rest, among them is an Kurt’s lover, and African goddess who embodies the beauty and the savagery of the land around her. After her appearance, Kurtz and the manager are involved in an argument, in which Marlow sides with Kurtz, finishing his career. Later on, Marlow learns that the previous attack on the steamer was Kurtz’s doing, as the Russian asks him for supplies to escape Kurtz’s station. Afterwards, awoken by d rumming, Malow goes after Kurtz in a savage impulse and finds Kurtz in some bushes, crawling towards an African warlock, and proceeds to bring him back to the station. The next day, Marlow takes Kurtz and leaves the post on the streamer, against the wishes of the African people; it is on this journey that Kurtz dies after professing some disturbing comments. Marlow later finds himself in England, unable to live together with the rest of the population after his experiences.

Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Development in the Paper Industry free essay sample

Abstract We decided to work with a really interesting topic; corporate social responsibility and sustainable development. We found this issue relevant for present companies and it is a pressing matter from the side of the government, media and social activists. We wanted to find the difference and the importance of CSR and SD in aspect of the paper industry. Since e-readers and other tablet based electronic devices have appeared on the market logically paper would have been pushed back, but we found controversial results after the first look. But then we realized that even though the industry shrinks due to recycled paper the consumption grows, which is a really interesting result. We went through extensive number of books, titles including: ‘Sustainable Development; Linking economy, society, and environment’ by Tracey Strange amp; Anne Bayley and ‘When Principles Pay – Corporate social responsibility and the bottom line’ by Geoffrey Heals. Also we researched and analysed secondary data found on the internet including articles, web-pages, and company press releases. We came to a conclusion that while corporate social responsibility promotes the right moves in the industry and shows the right face through the media, sustainable development is more important as it can be seen in actions, it is planning forward while increasing responsibility in the whole value chain. The paper industry has to promote that it is green and it is competitive with the electronic devices, but it has to be more and more sustainable to survive. - Methodology Our research project based on corporate social responsibility, and sustainable development. These topics can be found in numerous media. We used books and internet as most of our data collections. Since we did not research something new we found primary data collection irrelevant. The project is based on social constructivism, project oriented and only secondary data have been used, which to a certain extent limits the generalizability of the findings. All of the sources marked in the section bibliography and all of them have been marked reliable. Our research portfolio includes in wide extend all the material used for the synopsis. Methodology plan and guidelines The assembly of data from a variety of sources may be part of the process of research, without interpretation it is not research. * Data are collected systematically * Data are interpreted systematically * There is a clear purpose: to find things out * ‘Systematic’ suggests that research is based on logical relationship and not just beliefs. * Management research like other social sciences is description, explanation and prediction - Problem proposal Our group decided to research a really ‘hot’ topic nowadays. All the green movements affect our everyday life and we get pushed not just by the government but individuals are making conscious purchase and dispose decisions. Studies show that people do want to contribute in saving our planet; most of them have little options to make a difference. It is why we wanted to know if corporations as the most important players in our society do make good decisions for our planet or they just want to reach their shareholders expectations and earn as much profit as possible (even if this means to expose our natural resources) Therefore our main questions through our research and synopsis: * What do Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Sustainable Development mean? (definition and explanation) * Where are the similarities and differences between CSR and Sustainable Development? Then we decided to look closer into one specific industry which has interesting and contradicting figures, the paper industry. CSR and Sustainable development in the paper industry * Paper industry in general and facts * What affect does the electronic revolutions has on paper industry * Competition on the paper industry In business today, the phrase â€Å"sustainable development† and CSR are often being used. By answering the above questions, we hope to further investigate what these concepts are and how they affect companies today. Also we would like to find out what kind of changes would turn the paper industry into being sustainable - Definition of CSR The core and essence of each and every corporation is to make profit. As without profit none of them operates functionally and cannot reach the stakeholders expectations. And all of those individuals who invested into a business would like to have something in return, therefore maximizing the profit even by exploiting the surrounding resources or manpower is the ultimate goal for the managers. Since the middle 20th century when mass-production, planned obsolescence and modern consumerist society have been framed powers on the other end have been formulating. People realized that corporations utilize resources, produce huge amount of waste and make people work in unacceptable conditions. Civil societies are one of the non-market forces that push corporations into minimize their environmental impact and to support the minorities. The other two forces are the legal system and the regulatory framework. Surprisingly enough, civil societies are the most powerful force in turning companies socially responsible as individuals indeed the ones without whom support the company would not earn money. When people raise their voice and vote with their money a company due to avoid a bad PR situation has to make changes. In a legitimate business situation the business benefits from its environment and the environment benefits from the business. Therefore the company has to show support towards the environment and the society in order to continue grow. In conclusion, corporate social responsibility is a self-regulatory mechanism built in the company’s business model. It is the corporation’s compliance to work in respect of law, international norms and ethical standards. Idealistically companies should not stop here they should go beyond regulations and work on the way to environmental and social harmony as the biggest harm happens on their level of production. Defining Sustainable Development Sustainable development is â€Å"developing in a way that benefits the widest possible range of sectors, across borders and even generations†(Strange amp; Bayley, 2008, p. 24). There are three elements that need to be taken into consideration to ensure that changes are sustainable and long t erm beneficial. They are: * Society * Economy * Environment How can these three be related to sustainable development? The link between them can be seen through the changes and developments in each area. For example â€Å"social well-being and economic well-being feed off each other and the whole game depends on a healthy biosphere in which to exist†(Strange amp; Bayley, 2008, p. 27). When looking at the above statement, it shows that the three elements, or pillars are quite interlinked. When looking at changes to further help the environment, the economy will be affected due to the fact that most changes would need to be funded. This could influence the society through the need of adapting and funding these changes. In other words, there will be trade-offs for any development in the three pillars. Overall, sustainable development needs to meet the â€Å"needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs†, which was noted by Norwegian Prime Minister, Gro H. Brundtland in 1980 (Porter amp; Kramer, 2006, s. 81). Another point of view on sustainable development is taken by Brice Lalonde, â€Å"To me, it refers to how the economy should enable us to live better lives while improving our environment and our societies, from now on and within a globalised world†(Lalonde, 2007). This was Mr Lalonde’s response to the question â€Å"So, how does the new chair (of the OECD) define sustainable development? (Lalonde, 2007). From his point of view, we can see that he has married the idea of the economy together with future developments in the environment. At the same time, one can assume that these developments cannot be undertaken while the economy is suffering. Another aspect that he has introduced to the subject is glob alisation. When looking at globalisation in the contents of sustainable development, there are a few challenges. One of which that has been pointed out is that â€Å"we are nearing the point where connection is not the exception but the rule†(Strange amp; Bayley, 2008, p. 0). While the world is getting smaller thanks to technology and advancements in the transport sector, the expectations on social globalisation are starting to be felt in the developing countries. - Difference between CSR and Sustainable Development CSR and Sustainability are interrelated and many use it interchangeably as well. However, I find it useful to distinguish between CSR and Sustainability in a business context. For businesses, it is useful to think about CSR in the context of the vision/mission of the business. What are the responsibilities of the business, why does it exist, and how it will go about meeting those responsibilities and goals. What has been noted is that CSR has been used not only by companies for marketing benefits, but it has also been used by activists to place pressure on corporations either on where they buy their raw material or what effects they have on the surrounding community (Porter amp; Kramer, 2006). While this can result in a company to move towards sustainable development, it is not likely to be integrated into the company as a long-term plan to begin with. While it can be said that sustainable development and CSR both share three elements, they are used with different intent (Soyka, 2012). One of the main differences is that CSR can be viewed as an obligation of a company, where sustainable development is not (Soyka, 2012). However, studies on CSR and consumer behaviour have shown inconclusive results. In saying that, when activist or a group of people place a company in the spotlight on a certain subject or practice, said company can be affected in the long term by having a bad reputation and the best way of correcting this is through CSR (Porter amp; Kramer, 2006). It is useful to think about Sustainability is the context how the business will operate, especially with a focus on the natural resources it consumes both directly (e. g. , coal) and indirectly (e. g. , electricity). How will the business be operated in way that allows it to make a profit today while not compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. This has been summarised by Soyka who defined sustainable development through providing â€Å"theoretical and practical sentimental improvement framework that can be fully justified and maintained during both good and challenging economical times† (Soyka, 2012). Most of the time, CSR and sustainable development are both put in a positive light; there are negative sides as well. Some companies might use the media and CSR to put themselves in a better position in the market. They might show they are responsible socially, while this is not in fact accurate. The same can be said for sustainable development when the phrase has been used to the extent that it becomes meaningless (Porter amp; Kramer, 2006, p. 83). - Paper industry in general and facts Market definition Here we would like to measure a country or region’s total use of paper and paperboard. This also includes for example news printing, paper for packaging, household and sanitary paper and other kinds of papers. When we are able to calculate all that, we get an idea on the volume of consumption of paper or paperboard in metric tons. Market Information Market value * The Western European paper amp; paperboard market grew by 1. 1% in 2011 to reach a value of $69,053. 8 million. Market value forecast In 2016, the Western European paper amp; paperboard market is forecast to have a value of $74,587. 3 million, an increase of 8% since 2011. Market volume The Western European paper amp; paperboard market shrank by 0. 5% in 2011 to reach a volume of 77. 2 million metric tonnes. Market volume forecast In 2016, the Western European paper amp; paperboard market is forecast to have a volume of 83. 7 million metric tonnes, an increase of 8. 4% since 2011. Geography segmentation The United Kingdom accounts for 18. 5% of the Western European paper amp; paperboard market value. Market rivalry High exit costs and similarity between market players contribute to the high level of rivalry that characterizes this market - Paper recycling in Europe â€Å"New figures suggest that Europes paper recycling rate has increased by nearly 10 % every five years since 2000, peaking at 70. 4 % in 2011. The figures, released by the paper recycling industry, show that the recycling rate was up from 68. 7% in 2010, which was well above the voluntary 66 % target for that year. The sector has now pledged to recycle at least 70 % of the paper and board products consumed right across Europe by 2015. † - The trade of recycled paper Paper for recycling is a global commodity which is traded internationally according to supply and demand. The net trade of paper for recycling was 8. 4 million tonnes in 2010, mainly due to exports by Asian buyers, particularly China. In 2010, China imported 24. 4 million tonnes of paper for recycling, mainly from Europe and North America. The paper recycling chain in the EU can face problems because of exports of unprocessed waste paper by organisations which are not part of the recycling sector and by non-European trading companies installed in the EU. Further increase of exports needs to be readdressed to ensure a safe, environmentally-friendly and reliable access to raw material for the existing and new recycling capacity in Europe and to maintain the competitiveness of the European paper recycling chain. The Commission Communication on Raw Materials highlights the importance of the enforcement of the Waste Shipment Regulation and further actions to ensure environmentally-sound management in recycling facilities. All parties support this statement and commit to continue increasing the collection of paper for recycling and to maintain the collected volumes at high levels in Europe for further recycling. The increase in the collection of paper must be higher than the increase in the net trade of paper for recycling. In the past, recycled papers often cost considerably more than virgin papers. Today, many grades such as text and cover (often used for letterhead, brochures and publications) and some coated papers are cost-competitive with virgin papers or even cost less. Copier and offset papers still tend to cost somewhat more, but the price differentials are smaller than ever, usually only a few percent. When there are cost differences, they are primarily caused by many recycled papers being made on smaller paper machines than virgin papers (creating a difference in economies of scale), by virgin paper mills dropping their prices because of vagaries in the market, and by imbalances caused by a newly capitalized and still-developing recycling system vs. a well-established and industrially integrated tree-pulping production system. Additionally, recycled paper incorporates all its costs into the product, including providing an alternative to disposal, and is not rewarded for its significantly lower energy and water use. Virgin paper costs, on the other hand, are masked by generous government timber, energy and water subsidies and do not incorporate responsibility or costs for the products eventual disposal. - The Evolution of Paper industry Here we want to find out if the digital evolution had an impact on the sales volume of paper. Consumption of paper and paperboard products has experienced significant decline in Europe in 2007. The market is expected to maintain low but positive growth from 2012 through to the end of the forecast period in 2016. This is attributable primarily to the aftermath of the financial crisis in the European Union at the end of the decade. The poor economy motivated many companies to perform a close analysis of their paper use and inspired the adoption of innovative and more efficient systems. These new systems will remain in place into the economic recovery and likely have a lasting impact on printing and writing paper consumption. In addition, the shift in the patterns of consumption of news and other media from print to digital formats is also apparently having an irreversible effect in some paper sectors such as newsprint. Total global consumption of paper is still rising, reaching 371 million tonnes in 2009. But the European consumption in Million metric tonnes faced a decrease since 2007. Year| Million metric tonnes| Growth (%)| 2007| 83,5| | 2008| 81,8| -2%| 2009| 74,4| -9%| 2010| 77,6| 4,20%| 2011| 77,2| -0,50%| The paper industry has become increasingly ‘green’ over the past few years, with many new initiatives in order to increase the amount of recycled paper (up to 70% in Europe) and reduce the usage of non-recyclable materials in the production of paper. And the materials are as much as possible disposed of in a way that it does not end up in landfill. In Europe the amount of water that is returned to its original source is at 94%, and where relevant, plants donate boiler ashes to local farmers to use as fertilizer. According to the Danish Environment Protection Agency, Denmark has seen high growth in the collection of waste paper and cardboard from 1996 to 2009. While the report does not speculate further on the source of the paper, it does suggest that ‘green packaging’ and increased online sales (delivered by package delivery) causes people to accumulate more paper-based packaging than before. The difference between online shopping and ‘regular’ shopping is outlined below: Company A sells computers through their brick-and-mortar store, they are delivered in individual cardboard boxes on wooden pallets at their door, which are then put on shelves for customers to bring home. Company B sells computers through their online store, they are delivered in individual cardboard boxes on wooden pallets at their warehouse. Here they are held until a customer orders them. When prepared for shipment, the computers are put into another cardboard box, with paper-based stuffing to further protect the product inside from damage during shipping and/or fill out the empty space in the standard-sized cardboard boxes used for shipping. Company B is using paper-based solutions because this is greener than using plastic bags or bubble wrap - Sustainability and CSR in the paper industry As the technological revolution is gaining more and more space, and serves as a form of disruptive innovation for many industries, certain aspects of these affected industries have to be modified, and thought of differently. That’s exactly what’s going on in the paper industry. Even though the production of graphic paper is currently a somewhat stagnant market, a lot of other parts of the industry are suffering the pioneer aspects of our modern age’s technological presence. One of the rapidly declining victim is the newsprint and writing industry, which saw a whopping 23% decline since 2007 and is forecasting yet another year on the same exact track, due to people increasingly seeking out the internet or television as their primary source of being kept updated. Another substitute for the use of paper came with the emergence of hand driers in most facilities that consider themselves modernized. As for contributions the growing use of paper, one of the main answers lies in packaging. Nowadays most packaged food and e-commerce related purchases are delivered in paper based packaging which contributes big time to the immense shift. The use of paper and board has seen an increase of 23 million tonnes since 2007, which is an overall 18% growth annually. All this could be attributed to the fact that there are few alternatives for such purposes. Right behind there’s the tissue industry forecasting a 4,5% growth for a total of 6 million tonnes, and a 22% increase in the last 6 years. Another large contributor to the excessive use of paper are junk mail. In the U. S. nly, is around a 100 million pieces a year, which contributes to 20% of all mail in the world. 44% of all junk mail delivered in the United States arrives at the landfills unopened. - - Conclusion: What are the effects and outlook for the future? The impact that’s made on the environment by the production of paper is astonishing. The paper industry is the third most energy intensive and fourth largest emitter of greenhouse gases, while 16% of the world’s solid waste is made up of paper. This is clearly not sustainable. So what can be done? As a major game changer, recycling has emerged in the 21st century as possible answer and a sustainable solution particularly in North America and Europe. 65% of these region’s paper is recovered, and recycled. However, this affects the output of products on the consumer market, and paper manufacturers use desperate action by trying to make their products difficult-to-process to recycling as much as they can. Nevertheless the growing importance of mineral fillers instead of wood pulp, and progressive sophistication in recycling technology paired with avouritism for ecological and economic reasons to use recycled paper, all point in the same direction of keeping this cost saving solution a strong driving point in upcoming years. - Bibliography Porter, M. E. , amp; Kramer, M. R. (2006, December). Strategy amp; Society The Link Between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility . harvard business review . Soyka, P. A. (2012). Creating A Sustainable Organization. USA: Pearson Education, Inc. CEPI. (2010). European Pulp and Paper Industry . Preliminary Statistics 2010 . Farlex, Inc. (n. d. ). The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 2013 13-May from http://www. thefreedictionary. com Lalonde, B. (2007, May). Sustainable facts. Chair of the Round Table on Sustainable Development. (AB, Interviewer) OECD Observer No. 261. Paglia, T. (2012). ForestEthics. 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