Monday, May 18, 2020

Perfect Competition and Monopoly - 1734 Words

Question 3 Perfect Competition and Monopoly (a) I. Explain perfect competition and monopoly market structures, and identify the key factors that distinguish them. Perfect Competition Market In economic theory, the perfect competition is a market form in which no producer or consumer has the power to influence prices in the market. According to the website wordIQ.com, in order to classify the market is a perfect competition market, the market must match below criteria: 1. There are a large number of small producers and consumers on a given market 2. None of the producers or consumers can influence the price on their own (ie. Price takers) 3. Goods and services are perfect substitute (ie. The goods or services is†¦show more content†¦Many monopoly market is monitored by the government or other government agencies, and this can ensure the services or goods are of reasonable level of quality. Also, there would be a way for the customers to make complaint against the company. Argument against monopoly One of the argument against monopoly is the market is lack of competition, and the monopoly business does not have motivation to make any innovation to improve its product or service. Also, in the monopoly market, business has power to influence the supply level and have great influence to affect the price level. In this structure of market, consumers cannot choose their preferred suppliers and have no power to influence the price level. (b) I. Choose a case study from your home country where an externality exists in a current market. Illustrate the situation and the resulting deadweight loss in a diagram and discuss ways that your government has addressed the presence of negative externalities in the market. Petroleum industry is an example of industry with externality in the market. There are many petrol stations in Hong Kong, with different brand names, and we assume that this is a perfect competition market. If there is no externality in this market, we would conclude that the private cost that customers pay is same as social cost, and the private benefit is same asShow MoreRelatedMonopoly and Perfect Competition1045 Words   |  5 Pagesdifference between monopoly and perfect competition? Firm under perfect competition and the firm under monopoly are similar as the aim of both the seller is to maximize profit and to minimize loss. The equilibrium position followed by both the monopoly and perfect competition is MR = MC. Despite their similarities, these two forms of market organization differ from each other in respect of price-cost-output. There are many points of difference which are noted below. (1)Perfect competition is the marketRead MorePerfect Competition and Monopoly1722 Words   |  7 PagesQuestion 3 Perfect Competition and Monopoly (a) I. Explain perfect competition and monopoly market structures, and identify the key factors that distinguish them. Perfect Competition Market In economic theory, the perfect competition is a market form in which no producer or consumer has the power to influence prices in the market. According to the website wordIQ.com, in order to classify the market is a perfect competition market, the market must match below criteria: 1. ThereRead MorePerfect Competition vs Monopoly1378 Words   |  6 PagesMS (perfect competition) Vs Thames Water (monopoly) At one end is perfect competition where there are very many firms competing against each other. Every firm is so tiny in relation to the entire trade that has no power to manipulate price. It is a ‘price taker’. At the other end is monopoly, where there is just a single firm in the industry, and for this reason no competition from inside the industry. Perfect competition e.g. Marks Spencer, they have many competitors such as, Asda, NextRead MoreMonopoly, Perfect Competition, Imperfect Competition5614 Words   |  23 Pagestheory of perfect competition 3 Section 2: The theory of monopoly 9 Section 3: The theory of monopolistic competition and oligopoly 13 Section 4: Resource allocation/externalities 19 Section 5: Suggested solutions 23 INTRODUCTION There are basically two types of market situation: (a) Perfect competition – in this market, firms have no influence; they are price takers. (b) Imperfect competition – this market includes monopoly, oligopoly and monopolistic competition; firms areRead MorePerfect Competition, Oligopoly, And Monopoly Essay1988 Words   |  8 PagesThe marketplace consists of four main structures: perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly. Perfect Competition A perfectly competitive market system was best described by Keynes (1927): â€Å"[laissez-faire] [i] implies that there must be no mercy or protection for those who embark their labor in the wrong direction (Honja, 2015). It is a method of bringing the most successful profit-makers to the top by a ruthlessRead MoreMonopolies, Oligopoly, Monopolistic Competition, And Perfect Competition1085 Words   |  5 PagesMonopolies When understanding the different types f structures it is important to know the different types of markets that there are. Understanding barriers, buyers and sellers with knowing the market share and competition is important to understand what barriers are occurring in the market. The different market structures are Monopoly, Oligopoly, Monopolistic Competition, and Perfect Competition. Understanding these different type of market structures helps to better understand what type of marketRead MoreThe Various Shades Of Monopolies And Perfect Competition1003 Words   |  5 PagesThe Various Shades of Monopolies and Perfect Competition Robert Sturdevant Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University â€Æ' Abstract Monopolies are always known to hold a limited amount of control over its particular market and that gives them the dominant ability to control the prices for its goods or services, or in other words, they represent the market. They indeed have detrimental effects on consumer and social welfare, which is why most do not agree with them. This paper is an attempt to addressRead MoreMarket Structures : Perfect Competition, Monopoly, Monopolistic Competition And Oligopoly2078 Words   |  9 Pagesmarket structures – perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition and oligopoly, and their determinations of price and output. It also discussed the possibility for firms to generate profits in the short-run and/or in the long-run within these four market structures. It will be shown in the discussion that both monopolistic and oligopolistic firms are able to generate profits in both short-run and long-run, while firms in perfect competition and monopolistic competition could on ly make profitsRead MoreAn explanation of monopoly, oligopoly, perfect competition, and monopolistic competition - a detailed overview946 Words   |  4 Pages(public companies). One of the key determinates to a successful national economy is the structure of its markets. The main market structures are: 1. Monopoly 2. Oligopoly 3. Perfect Competition 4. Monopolistic Competition Each of these market structures have unique characteristics, and can be classified according to three factors. The degree of competition, the first factor, is important as it classifies markets into different market structures. It compares the relative sizes of firms, the amount ofRead MoreAre Monopolies Necessarily Less Efficient Than Perfect Competition2338 Words   |  10 PagesThis essay will look at efficiency between both a monopoly and a perfect competition, and whether a monopoly is necessarily less efficient than perfect competition. Using diagrams and equations reflecting the optimal choice of output, marginal revenue and marginal cost for monopolies, I will explain how efficiency is affected by low levels of production. At the same time monopolies can increase efficiency due to their ability in price discrimination, they price people differently and therefore

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis Of Kurtz s The Russian Harlequin - 1349 Words

Very briefly summarize (7-10) the plot of the chapter Marlow learns the the Russian â€Å"harlequin† is devoted to Kurtz, although Kurtz does not reciprocate these same feeling, and he also learns that Kurtz spends the majority of his time with native Africans, raiding various villages for ivory. The man himself shows up, but is a contrast to the previous description of him; he is ghostly, bony and dying; his voice however, is penetrating and booming, and commands the actions of the natives around him. Moments later, a group of natives gather outside the cabin in which Kurtz has been place into rest, among them is an Kurt’s lover, and African goddess who embodies the beauty and the savagery of the land around her. After her appearance, Kurtz and the manager are involved in an argument, in which Marlow sides with Kurtz, finishing his career. Later on, Marlow learns that the previous attack on the steamer was Kurtz’s doing, as the Russian asks him for supplies to escape Kurtz’s station. Afterwards, awoken by d rumming, Malow goes after Kurtz in a savage impulse and finds Kurtz in some bushes, crawling towards an African warlock, and proceeds to bring him back to the station. The next day, Marlow takes Kurtz and leaves the post on the streamer, against the wishes of the African people; it is on this journey that Kurtz dies after professing some disturbing comments. Marlow later finds himself in England, unable to live together with the rest of the population after his experiences.

Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Development in the Paper Industry free essay sample

Abstract We decided to work with a really interesting topic; corporate social responsibility and sustainable development. We found this issue relevant for present companies and it is a pressing matter from the side of the government, media and social activists. We wanted to find the difference and the importance of CSR and SD in aspect of the paper industry. Since e-readers and other tablet based electronic devices have appeared on the market logically paper would have been pushed back, but we found controversial results after the first look. But then we realized that even though the industry shrinks due to recycled paper the consumption grows, which is a really interesting result. We went through extensive number of books, titles including: ‘Sustainable Development; Linking economy, society, and environment’ by Tracey Strange amp; Anne Bayley and ‘When Principles Pay – Corporate social responsibility and the bottom line’ by Geoffrey Heals. Also we researched and analysed secondary data found on the internet including articles, web-pages, and company press releases. We came to a conclusion that while corporate social responsibility promotes the right moves in the industry and shows the right face through the media, sustainable development is more important as it can be seen in actions, it is planning forward while increasing responsibility in the whole value chain. The paper industry has to promote that it is green and it is competitive with the electronic devices, but it has to be more and more sustainable to survive. - Methodology Our research project based on corporate social responsibility, and sustainable development. These topics can be found in numerous media. We used books and internet as most of our data collections. Since we did not research something new we found primary data collection irrelevant. The project is based on social constructivism, project oriented and only secondary data have been used, which to a certain extent limits the generalizability of the findings. All of the sources marked in the section bibliography and all of them have been marked reliable. Our research portfolio includes in wide extend all the material used for the synopsis. Methodology plan and guidelines The assembly of data from a variety of sources may be part of the process of research, without interpretation it is not research. * Data are collected systematically * Data are interpreted systematically * There is a clear purpose: to find things out * ‘Systematic’ suggests that research is based on logical relationship and not just beliefs. * Management research like other social sciences is description, explanation and prediction - Problem proposal Our group decided to research a really ‘hot’ topic nowadays. All the green movements affect our everyday life and we get pushed not just by the government but individuals are making conscious purchase and dispose decisions. Studies show that people do want to contribute in saving our planet; most of them have little options to make a difference. It is why we wanted to know if corporations as the most important players in our society do make good decisions for our planet or they just want to reach their shareholders expectations and earn as much profit as possible (even if this means to expose our natural resources) Therefore our main questions through our research and synopsis: * What do Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Sustainable Development mean? (definition and explanation) * Where are the similarities and differences between CSR and Sustainable Development? Then we decided to look closer into one specific industry which has interesting and contradicting figures, the paper industry. CSR and Sustainable development in the paper industry * Paper industry in general and facts * What affect does the electronic revolutions has on paper industry * Competition on the paper industry In business today, the phrase â€Å"sustainable development† and CSR are often being used. By answering the above questions, we hope to further investigate what these concepts are and how they affect companies today. Also we would like to find out what kind of changes would turn the paper industry into being sustainable - Definition of CSR The core and essence of each and every corporation is to make profit. As without profit none of them operates functionally and cannot reach the stakeholders expectations. And all of those individuals who invested into a business would like to have something in return, therefore maximizing the profit even by exploiting the surrounding resources or manpower is the ultimate goal for the managers. Since the middle 20th century when mass-production, planned obsolescence and modern consumerist society have been framed powers on the other end have been formulating. People realized that corporations utilize resources, produce huge amount of waste and make people work in unacceptable conditions. Civil societies are one of the non-market forces that push corporations into minimize their environmental impact and to support the minorities. The other two forces are the legal system and the regulatory framework. Surprisingly enough, civil societies are the most powerful force in turning companies socially responsible as individuals indeed the ones without whom support the company would not earn money. When people raise their voice and vote with their money a company due to avoid a bad PR situation has to make changes. In a legitimate business situation the business benefits from its environment and the environment benefits from the business. Therefore the company has to show support towards the environment and the society in order to continue grow. In conclusion, corporate social responsibility is a self-regulatory mechanism built in the company’s business model. It is the corporation’s compliance to work in respect of law, international norms and ethical standards. Idealistically companies should not stop here they should go beyond regulations and work on the way to environmental and social harmony as the biggest harm happens on their level of production. Defining Sustainable Development Sustainable development is â€Å"developing in a way that benefits the widest possible range of sectors, across borders and even generations†(Strange amp; Bayley, 2008, p. 24). There are three elements that need to be taken into consideration to ensure that changes are sustainable and long t erm beneficial. They are: * Society * Economy * Environment How can these three be related to sustainable development? The link between them can be seen through the changes and developments in each area. For example â€Å"social well-being and economic well-being feed off each other and the whole game depends on a healthy biosphere in which to exist†(Strange amp; Bayley, 2008, p. 27). When looking at the above statement, it shows that the three elements, or pillars are quite interlinked. When looking at changes to further help the environment, the economy will be affected due to the fact that most changes would need to be funded. This could influence the society through the need of adapting and funding these changes. In other words, there will be trade-offs for any development in the three pillars. Overall, sustainable development needs to meet the â€Å"needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs†, which was noted by Norwegian Prime Minister, Gro H. Brundtland in 1980 (Porter amp; Kramer, 2006, s. 81). Another point of view on sustainable development is taken by Brice Lalonde, â€Å"To me, it refers to how the economy should enable us to live better lives while improving our environment and our societies, from now on and within a globalised world†(Lalonde, 2007). This was Mr Lalonde’s response to the question â€Å"So, how does the new chair (of the OECD) define sustainable development? (Lalonde, 2007). From his point of view, we can see that he has married the idea of the economy together with future developments in the environment. At the same time, one can assume that these developments cannot be undertaken while the economy is suffering. Another aspect that he has introduced to the subject is glob alisation. When looking at globalisation in the contents of sustainable development, there are a few challenges. One of which that has been pointed out is that â€Å"we are nearing the point where connection is not the exception but the rule†(Strange amp; Bayley, 2008, p. 0). While the world is getting smaller thanks to technology and advancements in the transport sector, the expectations on social globalisation are starting to be felt in the developing countries. - Difference between CSR and Sustainable Development CSR and Sustainability are interrelated and many use it interchangeably as well. However, I find it useful to distinguish between CSR and Sustainability in a business context. For businesses, it is useful to think about CSR in the context of the vision/mission of the business. What are the responsibilities of the business, why does it exist, and how it will go about meeting those responsibilities and goals. What has been noted is that CSR has been used not only by companies for marketing benefits, but it has also been used by activists to place pressure on corporations either on where they buy their raw material or what effects they have on the surrounding community (Porter amp; Kramer, 2006). While this can result in a company to move towards sustainable development, it is not likely to be integrated into the company as a long-term plan to begin with. While it can be said that sustainable development and CSR both share three elements, they are used with different intent (Soyka, 2012). One of the main differences is that CSR can be viewed as an obligation of a company, where sustainable development is not (Soyka, 2012). However, studies on CSR and consumer behaviour have shown inconclusive results. In saying that, when activist or a group of people place a company in the spotlight on a certain subject or practice, said company can be affected in the long term by having a bad reputation and the best way of correcting this is through CSR (Porter amp; Kramer, 2006). It is useful to think about Sustainability is the context how the business will operate, especially with a focus on the natural resources it consumes both directly (e. g. , coal) and indirectly (e. g. , electricity). How will the business be operated in way that allows it to make a profit today while not compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. This has been summarised by Soyka who defined sustainable development through providing â€Å"theoretical and practical sentimental improvement framework that can be fully justified and maintained during both good and challenging economical times† (Soyka, 2012). Most of the time, CSR and sustainable development are both put in a positive light; there are negative sides as well. Some companies might use the media and CSR to put themselves in a better position in the market. They might show they are responsible socially, while this is not in fact accurate. The same can be said for sustainable development when the phrase has been used to the extent that it becomes meaningless (Porter amp; Kramer, 2006, p. 83). - Paper industry in general and facts Market definition Here we would like to measure a country or region’s total use of paper and paperboard. This also includes for example news printing, paper for packaging, household and sanitary paper and other kinds of papers. When we are able to calculate all that, we get an idea on the volume of consumption of paper or paperboard in metric tons. Market Information Market value * The Western European paper amp; paperboard market grew by 1. 1% in 2011 to reach a value of $69,053. 8 million. Market value forecast In 2016, the Western European paper amp; paperboard market is forecast to have a value of $74,587. 3 million, an increase of 8% since 2011. Market volume The Western European paper amp; paperboard market shrank by 0. 5% in 2011 to reach a volume of 77. 2 million metric tonnes. Market volume forecast In 2016, the Western European paper amp; paperboard market is forecast to have a volume of 83. 7 million metric tonnes, an increase of 8. 4% since 2011. Geography segmentation The United Kingdom accounts for 18. 5% of the Western European paper amp; paperboard market value. Market rivalry High exit costs and similarity between market players contribute to the high level of rivalry that characterizes this market - Paper recycling in Europe â€Å"New figures suggest that Europes paper recycling rate has increased by nearly 10 % every five years since 2000, peaking at 70. 4 % in 2011. The figures, released by the paper recycling industry, show that the recycling rate was up from 68. 7% in 2010, which was well above the voluntary 66 % target for that year. The sector has now pledged to recycle at least 70 % of the paper and board products consumed right across Europe by 2015. † - The trade of recycled paper Paper for recycling is a global commodity which is traded internationally according to supply and demand. The net trade of paper for recycling was 8. 4 million tonnes in 2010, mainly due to exports by Asian buyers, particularly China. In 2010, China imported 24. 4 million tonnes of paper for recycling, mainly from Europe and North America. The paper recycling chain in the EU can face problems because of exports of unprocessed waste paper by organisations which are not part of the recycling sector and by non-European trading companies installed in the EU. Further increase of exports needs to be readdressed to ensure a safe, environmentally-friendly and reliable access to raw material for the existing and new recycling capacity in Europe and to maintain the competitiveness of the European paper recycling chain. The Commission Communication on Raw Materials highlights the importance of the enforcement of the Waste Shipment Regulation and further actions to ensure environmentally-sound management in recycling facilities. All parties support this statement and commit to continue increasing the collection of paper for recycling and to maintain the collected volumes at high levels in Europe for further recycling. The increase in the collection of paper must be higher than the increase in the net trade of paper for recycling. In the past, recycled papers often cost considerably more than virgin papers. Today, many grades such as text and cover (often used for letterhead, brochures and publications) and some coated papers are cost-competitive with virgin papers or even cost less. Copier and offset papers still tend to cost somewhat more, but the price differentials are smaller than ever, usually only a few percent. When there are cost differences, they are primarily caused by many recycled papers being made on smaller paper machines than virgin papers (creating a difference in economies of scale), by virgin paper mills dropping their prices because of vagaries in the market, and by imbalances caused by a newly capitalized and still-developing recycling system vs. a well-established and industrially integrated tree-pulping production system. Additionally, recycled paper incorporates all its costs into the product, including providing an alternative to disposal, and is not rewarded for its significantly lower energy and water use. Virgin paper costs, on the other hand, are masked by generous government timber, energy and water subsidies and do not incorporate responsibility or costs for the products eventual disposal. - The Evolution of Paper industry Here we want to find out if the digital evolution had an impact on the sales volume of paper. Consumption of paper and paperboard products has experienced significant decline in Europe in 2007. The market is expected to maintain low but positive growth from 2012 through to the end of the forecast period in 2016. This is attributable primarily to the aftermath of the financial crisis in the European Union at the end of the decade. The poor economy motivated many companies to perform a close analysis of their paper use and inspired the adoption of innovative and more efficient systems. These new systems will remain in place into the economic recovery and likely have a lasting impact on printing and writing paper consumption. In addition, the shift in the patterns of consumption of news and other media from print to digital formats is also apparently having an irreversible effect in some paper sectors such as newsprint. Total global consumption of paper is still rising, reaching 371 million tonnes in 2009. But the European consumption in Million metric tonnes faced a decrease since 2007. Year| Million metric tonnes| Growth (%)| 2007| 83,5| | 2008| 81,8| -2%| 2009| 74,4| -9%| 2010| 77,6| 4,20%| 2011| 77,2| -0,50%| The paper industry has become increasingly ‘green’ over the past few years, with many new initiatives in order to increase the amount of recycled paper (up to 70% in Europe) and reduce the usage of non-recyclable materials in the production of paper. And the materials are as much as possible disposed of in a way that it does not end up in landfill. In Europe the amount of water that is returned to its original source is at 94%, and where relevant, plants donate boiler ashes to local farmers to use as fertilizer. According to the Danish Environment Protection Agency, Denmark has seen high growth in the collection of waste paper and cardboard from 1996 to 2009. While the report does not speculate further on the source of the paper, it does suggest that ‘green packaging’ and increased online sales (delivered by package delivery) causes people to accumulate more paper-based packaging than before. The difference between online shopping and ‘regular’ shopping is outlined below: Company A sells computers through their brick-and-mortar store, they are delivered in individual cardboard boxes on wooden pallets at their door, which are then put on shelves for customers to bring home. Company B sells computers through their online store, they are delivered in individual cardboard boxes on wooden pallets at their warehouse. Here they are held until a customer orders them. When prepared for shipment, the computers are put into another cardboard box, with paper-based stuffing to further protect the product inside from damage during shipping and/or fill out the empty space in the standard-sized cardboard boxes used for shipping. Company B is using paper-based solutions because this is greener than using plastic bags or bubble wrap - Sustainability and CSR in the paper industry As the technological revolution is gaining more and more space, and serves as a form of disruptive innovation for many industries, certain aspects of these affected industries have to be modified, and thought of differently. That’s exactly what’s going on in the paper industry. Even though the production of graphic paper is currently a somewhat stagnant market, a lot of other parts of the industry are suffering the pioneer aspects of our modern age’s technological presence. One of the rapidly declining victim is the newsprint and writing industry, which saw a whopping 23% decline since 2007 and is forecasting yet another year on the same exact track, due to people increasingly seeking out the internet or television as their primary source of being kept updated. Another substitute for the use of paper came with the emergence of hand driers in most facilities that consider themselves modernized. As for contributions the growing use of paper, one of the main answers lies in packaging. Nowadays most packaged food and e-commerce related purchases are delivered in paper based packaging which contributes big time to the immense shift. The use of paper and board has seen an increase of 23 million tonnes since 2007, which is an overall 18% growth annually. All this could be attributed to the fact that there are few alternatives for such purposes. Right behind there’s the tissue industry forecasting a 4,5% growth for a total of 6 million tonnes, and a 22% increase in the last 6 years. Another large contributor to the excessive use of paper are junk mail. In the U. S. nly, is around a 100 million pieces a year, which contributes to 20% of all mail in the world. 44% of all junk mail delivered in the United States arrives at the landfills unopened. - - Conclusion: What are the effects and outlook for the future? The impact that’s made on the environment by the production of paper is astonishing. The paper industry is the third most energy intensive and fourth largest emitter of greenhouse gases, while 16% of the world’s solid waste is made up of paper. This is clearly not sustainable. So what can be done? As a major game changer, recycling has emerged in the 21st century as possible answer and a sustainable solution particularly in North America and Europe. 65% of these region’s paper is recovered, and recycled. However, this affects the output of products on the consumer market, and paper manufacturers use desperate action by trying to make their products difficult-to-process to recycling as much as they can. Nevertheless the growing importance of mineral fillers instead of wood pulp, and progressive sophistication in recycling technology paired with avouritism for ecological and economic reasons to use recycled paper, all point in the same direction of keeping this cost saving solution a strong driving point in upcoming years. - Bibliography Porter, M. E. , amp; Kramer, M. R. (2006, December). Strategy amp; Society The Link Between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility . harvard business review . Soyka, P. A. (2012). Creating A Sustainable Organization. USA: Pearson Education, Inc. CEPI. (2010). European Pulp and Paper Industry . Preliminary Statistics 2010 . Farlex, Inc. (n. d. ). The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 2013 13-May from http://www. thefreedictionary. com Lalonde, B. (2007, May). Sustainable facts. Chair of the Round Table on Sustainable Development. (AB, Interviewer) OECD Observer No. 261. Paglia, T. (2012). ForestEthics. Retrieved 2013 19-May from http://forestethics. org/ Strange, T. , amp; Bayley, A. (2008). Sustainable Develpment, linking economy, society, environment. OECD: OECDpublishing. Luther, J. (2000). White Paper on Electronic Journal Usage Statistics . Washington : Council on Library and Information Resources . Peloza, J. , Loock, M. , Cerruti, J. , amp; Muyot, M. (2012). Sustainability: HOW STAKEHOLDER PERCEPTIONS DIFFER FROM CORPORATE REALITY (Vol. 55). Berkeley: University Of California. Laszlo, C. , amp; Cooperrider, D. L. (2010). CREATING SUSTAINABLE VALUE: A STRENGTH-BASED WHOLE SYSTEM APPROACH . Emerald Group Publishing Limited . Heal, Geoffery (2010). When Principles Pay – Corporate social responsibility and the bottom line. http://www. csrquest. net/ http://www. un-documents. net/wced-ocf. htm www. saltlondon. com/blog/2012/10/differences csrperspective. om/uncategorized/sustainability-is-overrated-part-2 http://www. epa. gov/osw/conserve/materials/paper/basics/papermaking. htm http://www. thedailygreen. com/environmental-news/latest/7447 http://www2. mst. dk/udgiv/publikationer/2011/10/978-87-92779-44-1/978-87-92779-44-1. pdf http://customcontentonline. com/sections/130114_Paper. pdf http://ies. lbl. gov/iespubs/41843. pdf http://www. cepi-sustainability. eu/product-safety risiinfo. com foresthetics. org prweb. com [ 1 ]. Source: OREP; European Commission

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

What is plagiarism Example For Students

What is plagiarism? Every academic year, students write hundreds of academic papers cutting across different subjects and topics processing tons of information from various academic materials. Plagiarism, in this regard, can become a real problem, especially if students lack information literacy. That’s why it is imperative that they stick to rules and guidelines of scholastic writing that govern the conduct of research. For example, writing a plagiarism-free paper is something that teachers and supervisors will always emphasize. Their aim is to help learners steer clear of plagiarising. However, not every student lives to such expectations even after being advised against copying and pasting content from other sources. In this regard, information literacy is indeed a crucial aspect to note. We will write a custom essay on What is plagiarism? specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Sometimes, plagiarism happens because not many students understand what it means to present original ideas after weeks of research. Thus, a question many students ask is this: What is plagiarising? Well, to help you understand how serious a crime it is, let’s start by looking at its definition. Outline1 Plagiarism Definition1.1 Why does it matter?2 Examples of Plagiarism Plagiarism Definition From your first year in a college/University to the forth or beyond, plagiarism is a term a student will often encounter. It could be during studies or when doing research on an idea about which you want to write. There are several other definitions that shed light onto what plagiarising means. First off, many dictionaries put it as stealing ideas or using existing ones of another person as if they were your own. A good example is copying a few lines from Martin Luther’s speech ‘I have a dream’ without quoting the opening words or even giving due credit to the author. The fact that you fail to credit your write-up to a source amounts to an act of plagiarism. In other quarters, plagiarism equals literary theft, in which case, a student reads a book then copies it verbatim. Why does it matter? You would agree that the work based on the original research would fetch the highest marks. But a question most students also ask is why it would matter to use exact words from a source and give attribution. Also, is it possible to steal ideas from a source and claim they are your own? The truth is that we live in the information age and anything can happen. It is also noteworthy that over the past years, plagiarism has steadily got worse a trend that is projected to continue. We, therefore, only hope that with the help of plagiarism checker systems or software, teachers and students can steer clear of the academic vice. Given that it has become a serious problem that continues to bedevil productivity of learners, plagiarism merits for a discussion-especially how to get rid of it. You don’t want to spend weeks or even months on academic research only to be told your paper lacks citation or quotation marks in some sections. By giving credit to borrowed information, you are admitting that with the help of an indispensable source of knowledge such as a book, words or ideas, the content of your essay is scholastic. More reasons why checking your paper for plagiarism matters include the following: ï‚ ·Information literacy: Definitively, plagiarism is a literary offence and committing it is punishable in many different ways. Your teacher may request that you redo an assignment for failing to employ your own reasoning, to apply knowledge or information. In the end, you are regarded as less informed. ï‚ · An act of plagiarism can earn a student suspension or expulsion from school. It is because the aim of every academic institution, with the help of teachers, is to help learners become dependable people in society. However, such a question would be immaterial if one keeps copying and pasting content from published materials. Take note that plagiarising is also when you keep recycling words in your old essays. .ua57c2d6333fe0047671a38cc07ced807 , .ua57c2d6333fe0047671a38cc07ced807 .postImageUrl , .ua57c2d6333fe0047671a38cc07ced807 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ua57c2d6333fe0047671a38cc07ced807 , .ua57c2d6333fe0047671a38cc07ced807:hover , .ua57c2d6333fe0047671a38cc07ced807:visited , .ua57c2d6333fe0047671a38cc07ced807:active { border:0!important; } .ua57c2d6333fe0047671a38cc07ced807 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ua57c2d6333fe0047671a38cc07ced807 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ua57c2d6333fe0047671a38cc07ced807:active , .ua57c2d6333fe0047671a38cc07ced807:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ua57c2d6333fe0047671a38cc07ced807 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ua57c2d6333fe0047671a38cc07ced807 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ua57c2d6333fe0047671a38cc07ced807 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ua57c2d6333fe0047671a38cc07ced807 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ua57c2d6333fe0047671a38cc07ced807:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ua57c2d6333fe0047671a38cc07ced807 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ua57c2d6333fe0047671a38cc07ced807 .ua57c2d6333fe0047671a38cc07ced807-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ua57c2d6333fe0047671a38cc07ced807:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Ultimate Guide on How to Avoid Plagiarismï‚ ·By stealing words, ideas and information from other materials, you are in the same category as someone who goes out to steal another person’s property such as a phone. Thus, an act of plagiarism does not preserve moral standing, but rather, destroys it! ï‚ ·There is pride in publishing original knowledge on a subject, discipline or topic. It is the wish of everyone who wants to become a scholar after schooling for many years. However, plagiarism can hardly allow you to make such a dream come true. When you fail to attribute a source, give credit to a book or present a paper that lacks citations and references, it amounts to plagiarising. Examples of Plagiarism Now, to further help you understand how plagiarism takes places, here is a look at some examples: ï‚ ·Plagiarism is writing down a saying or part of speech without using quotation marks. ï‚ · Plagiarism is when you do a research, write down literature review but fail to quote an author(s) in your citation. If you are copying word for word, use citations to indicate that the ideas are not your own. ï‚ ·Copying and pasting ideas from existing materials/information or borrowing ideas then failing to identify their original source is plagiarism. You can also refer to it as the opposite of information literacy a case of failing to do original research and overly relying on published knowledge by another author to write a paper or report. ï‚ ·Downloading a picture or video to use in your presentation is plagiarism, in other words – stealing ideas from other authors. ï‚ ·Plagiarism is violating copyrights or intellectual property rights, say of a music record or a published book by using any of such without knowledge of or express permission from the original owner. In summary, plagiarism is a crime, mostly academic, that everyone must strive to avoid. Information derived from whatever material is at the centre of it all. Given that a comprehensive and dependable academic paper must represent varied opinions, including your own, it is imperative that students avoid plagiarising content by always attributing an author, book or material in their essays and other write-ups.

Monday, March 16, 2020

How to Make a Stem and Leaf Plot

How to Make a Stem and Leaf Plot When you finish grading an exam, you might want to determine how your class performed on the test. If you do not have a calculator handy, you can calculate the mean or median of the test scores. Alternately, it is helpful to see how the scores are distributed. Do they resemble a bell curve? Are the scores bimodal? One type of graph that displays these features of the data is called a stem-and-leaf plot or stemplot. Despite the name, there is no flora or foliage involved. Instead, the stem forms one part of a number, and the leaves make up the rest of that number.   Constructing a Stemplot In a stemplot, each score is broken into two pieces: the stem and leaf. In this example, the tens digits are stems, and the one  digits form the leaves. The resulting stemplot produces a distribution of the data similar to a  histogram, but all of the data values are retained in a compact form. You can easily see features of the students’ performance from the shape of the stem-and-leaf plot. Stem and Leaf Plot Example Suppose that your class had the following test scores: 84, 65, 78, 75, 89, 90, 88, 83, 72, 91, and 90 and you wanted to see at a glance what features were present in the data. You would rewrite the list of scores in order and then use a stem-and-leaf plot. The stems are 6, 7, 8, and 9, corresponding to the tens place of the data. This is listed in a vertical column. The ones digit of each score is written in a horizontal row to the right of each stem, as follows: 9| 0 0 1 8| 3 4 8 9 7| 2 5 8 6| 2 You can easily read the data from this stemplot. For example, the top row contains the values of 90, 90, and 91. It shows that only three students earned a score in the 90th percentile with scores of 90, 90, and 91. By contrast, four students earned scores in the 80th percentile, with marks of 83, 84, 88, and 89. Breaking Down the Stem and Leaf With test scores as well as other data that range between zero and 100 points, the above strategy works for choosing stems and leaves. But for data with more than two digits, youll need to use other strategies.   For example, if you want to make a stem-and-leaf plot for the data set of 100, 105, 110, 120, 124, 126, 130, 131, and 132, you can use the highest place value to create the stem. In this case, the hundreds digit would be the stem, which is not very helpful because none of the values is separated from any of the others: 1|00 05 10 20 24 26 30 31 32 Instead, to obtain a better distribution, make the stem the first two digits of the data. The resulting stem-and-leaf plot does a better job of depicting the data: 13| 0 1 2 12| 0 4 6 11| 0 10| 0 5 Expanding and Condensing The two stemplots in the previous section show the versatility of stem-and-leaf plots. They can be expanded or condensed by changing the form of the stem. One strategy for expanding a stemplot is to evenly split a stem into equally sized pieces: 9| 0 0 1 8| 3 4 8 9 7| 2 5 8 6| 2 You would expand this stem-and-leaf plot by splitting each stem into two. This results in two stems for each tens digit. The data with zero to four in the ones place value are separated from those with digits five to nine: 9| 0 0 1 8| 8 9 8| 3 4 7| 5 8 7| 2 6| 6| 2 The six with no numbers to the right shows that there are no data values from 65 to 69.

Friday, February 28, 2020

SPIRITUAL AND RELIGIOUS ENVIRONMENT INCLUSION Research Paper

SPIRITUAL AND RELIGIOUS ENVIRONMENT INCLUSION - Research Paper Example hat which makes one breathe, or to that in life worth breathing for. Spirituality is interpreted variously, depending on concerns, expectations, and experiences. For many, the spiritual domain is equated with a specific religious tradition or practice; for some, spirituality is a private experience of connection to some unifying and universal presence; and for others, it is tantamount to a profound sentiment of peace and contentment. For some they are uncomfortable with the parlance of spirituality (faith, belief, soul, God). Soet and Martin (2007) report that spirituality has received increasing attention as an area to be considered in counseling and college student development. But little has been written about specific interventions to address college students' spiritual needs.† (Strange, 2001 p.58) 3 In â€Å"Taking Religious Pluralism Seriously: Spiritual Politics on America's Sacred,† Barbara A. ... one poll, are not part of any religious tradition at all." (McGraw & Formicola, 2005, p.ix) 3 In 2002, the UCLA’s Higher Education Research Institute initiated a main, multi-year program of research to study the spiritual development of undergraduate students during the college years. The Astin, Astin, & Lindholm study (2010) was intended to increase the understanding of how college students consider the spirituality, the role it plays in their lives, and how colleges and universities can be more effective in facilitating students’ spiritual development. (Astin, et al., 2010, p.1) Among the primary research questions were: 4 â€Å"What role does spirituality play in the lives of today’s college students?† 4 â€Å"How do students’ spiritual qualities change during the college years?† 4 â€Å"What are institutions doing that aids or inhibits students in their spiritual quest?† (Astin, et al., 2010, p.1) 4 According to the Spirituality we bsite of the UCLA, the school found that students showed the maximum degree of growth in the five spiritual qualities if they are enthusiastically engaged in â€Å"inner work† through self-reflection, observation, or contemplation. Students also showed significant increases in interest in the spiritual quest when their faculty practiced inclusionary policies. 4 â€Å"Religious Engagement, an ‘external’ measure which represents the behavioral equivalent to Religious Commitment, includes behaviors such as presence religious services, praying, religious singing/chanting, and reading sacred books. Attendance at religious services shows a sharp down turn during college, while other forms of engagement show alike but slighter declines. Over the third of the students (39%) attend services less repeatedly in university than they did in high

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Discuss the advantages of analysing organizations as incentive Essay

Discuss the advantages of analysing organizations as incentive mechanisms - Essay Example Hence, financial stability and economic prosperity is the basic motive behind all the efforts made by the individuals for obtaining different skills, degrees and qualifications. Theorists are of the opinion that the higher the level of education and technical skill or both, the brighter the probabilities of attaining respectable socioeconomic status in individual and collective life of the people. â€Å"In the age of globalisation, the knowledge economy discourse has become a way to characterise the new relationships between the state, society and economy and rendered higher education increasingly important for the international competitiveness of the nation states through their central tasks of generation, application and dissemination of knowledge and training high skilled labour force.† (Macerinskiene & Vaiksnoraite, 2006) Consequently, the efforts made in learning and studies certainly carry the purpose of enjoying incentives in the form of salaries, profits, facilities an d promotions in professional career. All corporate firms and organisations are well aware of this very reality that managers, employees, staff members and workers stick to one company provided it continues the policy of offering various incentives in the form of reasonable salary package, announces bonuses on showing excellent performance, assures job security, medical allowances and regular promotions on the basis on capabilities, dedication and targets achievement. The present study looks for analysing the companies as incentive mechanisms in the light of the theories articulated by the scholars and philosophers time and again pointing out the advantages of incentives in the growth of the organisations on the one hand, and in the performance of the work force on the other. Celebrated psychologist theorist Abraham H. Maslow has articulated his Need Hierarchy Theory in 1943 on the very notion of motivational effects, where he submits to state that five basic motivational scales are inevitable for the companies for the maintenance of the employees’ satisfaction. These levels include fulfilment of physiological needs, safety assurance, social/professional recognition, ego and self- actualising. (Maslow, 1943) The theorist argues that since motivational factors aptly rise from the lowest possible scales, so the most fundamental needs and requirements of the employees must be satisfied in precedence for the upgrading of their performance on the one hand, and for accelerating the pace of their interest in the tasks they are expected to accomplish on the other. Maslow vehemently declares the fulfilment of physiological needs as highly supportive for the job satisfaction of the workers. He is of the opinion that the employees should be assigned the tasks keeping in view their aptitude, interest, dexterity and command, which will not only turn out as the most inspirational factor of motivation for them, but also may pave the way towards the growth and developme nt of the organisation at large. Consequently, the more attractive and relevant to the disposition and aptitude of an employee the work, the higher will be the level of his motivation while performing his obligations and giving results to the organisation. In addition, if an employee's salary or wages are not sufficient to buy basic necessities including food, clothing and shelter for him and his family, his motivation level will surely be low and he will be unable to pay due heed to his work. Furthermore, job